How does wordpress permalink system works?

WordPress uses

    # BEGIN WordPress
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteRule ^index.php$ - [L]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule . /index.php [L]

First question, what does mean one line of code below

RewriteRule ^index.php$ - [L]

Next thing is I don’t know how index.php handle with this…

So all url are redirected to index.php

If I type this url

.htaccess will redirect me to index.php

But there is no information, I mean QUERY_STRING or something. It’s not something like

but instead it is just

And this is just index.php… So how index.php is making this possible? How does wordpress handle this? I can’t find anyone answers. What are wordpress mechanics for this?

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